Francis Dashwood Tandy

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Francis Dashwood Tandy (1867-June 29, 1913) was an individualist anarchist writer and publisher active in the late 19th and early 20th century. His major work was the book Voluntary Socialism: A Sketch (1896), a work on individualist anarchist political economy, which Tandy dedicated to Benjamin Tucker. Born in England, to Irish parents,[1] he immigrated to the United States in 1887, and moved to Denver, Colorado, where he spent most of his career. Tandy died suddenly in Los Angeles at the age of 46 while he and his wife Ina M. Tandy were in the process of moving to San Francisco, where Tandy had intended to go into business.[2]



1891:"Biology and Sociology"The Twentieth Century, May 14, 1891, 7.
1891: Victor Yarros and Francis D. Tandy, "Mr. Tandy's Consolations."Liberty 8, no. 9 (August 8, 1891): 2.
1893:Economy in Library Binding Books 3, no. 8-9 (August-September 1893): 143.
1896: Voluntary Socialism: A Sketch Denver, Co.: Self-Published (Molinari Institute) (Google Books)
1896: "Free Competition"Columbus Junction Ia.: E.H. Fulton, 1896 (Libertarian Labyrinth) (Google Books listing)
1896: "Machinery and Rent"Liberty, Vol. XII. No. 5 (July 11, 1896). 4.
1896:Suggestions on the Index to PeriodicalsPublic Libraries 1, no. 4 (August 1896): 149.
1897:The Question of IndexesThe Library Journal 22, no. 2 (February 1897): 88.
1897:Something about Indexing The Writer 10, no. 2 (February 1897): 14-15.
1897: "Modern Socialistic Tendencies"A Lecture Delivered Before Unity Club in Unity Church, Denver, March 28, 1897. (Libertarian Labyrinth) (Google Books listing)
1897:The Question of IndexesThe Library Journal 22, no. 6 (June 1897): 303.
1897: "What's This? A Mare's Nest?"Liberty, Vol. XIII. No. 4 (July 1897). 4.
1897:The Pre-Natal Culture DogmaThe Colorado Medical Journal 3, no. 10 (October 1897): 377-381.
1898:The Colorado Medical Library Association The Colorado Medical Journal 4, no. 5 (May 1898): 181.
1899:Some Suggestions in Regard to the Use of the Dewey Decimal ClassificationPublic Libraries 4, no. 3 (March 1899): 139-141.
1900:Strikes, Trusts, Boycotts and BlacklistsThe Arena 22, no. ?? (February 1900): 194-203.




Los Angeles Tribune (1913)

Obituary, from the Los Angeles Tribune, June 30, 1913. Dr. Walter Lindley Scrapbooks, California Hospital, Number II, box 6, page 60. Honnold Mudd Library, Special Collections.

Francis B. Tandy [sic], forty-six years old, formerly a well-known publisher of Denver, passed away yesterday morning at the California hospital. Mr. amd Mrs. Tandy came to Los Angeles three weeks ago en route to San Francisco, where the former intended to go into business. He was removed to the hospital two weeks ago. Besides his widow, he is survived by three children. Funeral arrangements will be completed today.

James J. Martin, Men Against the State (1970)

From James J. Martin (1970/2009), Men Against the State: The Expositors of Individualist Anarchism in America, 1827-1908. Auburn, Ala.: Ludwig von Mises Institute. 258.

Others attempted the task assumed by Bailie in reconciling the many elements which went to make up individualist anarchism as it emerged from the combined influences of Spencerian and Stirnerite doctrines. One of these projected syntheses was the brief outline of Fred Schulder, The Relation of Anarchism to Organization. Another was Francis D. Tandy, an associate of Cohen in Denver, whose Modern Social Tendencies and Voluntary Socialism were anarchist works of considerable repute,87 showing influence of Tucker, Spencer and Thoreau. Both Tandy and Schulder were recipients of Tucker's approval in their activities along the program of educational propaganda for the anarchist cause.
87. Schulder, Relation of Anarchism to Organization, 2-4, 10-15; Tandy, Modern Social Tendencies, 1-2, 9. See the review of Tandy's Voluntary Socialism by Clarence Lee Swartz in I, II (May, 1899), 6-7.

p. 260.

Fulton, probably the most obviously influenced by Tucker of all the independents, began his paper, The Age of Thought, on July 4, 1896, at the height of a serious depression and hectic political campaign, at a time also when Liberty had begun to appear irregularly. Extremely well-written, featuring his own ideas plus those of the Denver group of Tandy, Cohen and William Holmes, Fulton's paper soon acquired a subscriber's list of several thousand, and was easily the best of the separately-sponsored journals. A former advocate of colonization, he now stressed the land for use and free banking propositions, and dismissed the Bryan silver campaign as "a squabble in regard to which of two powerful classes shall exercise an iniquitous privilege," the position of the anarchists with relation to the restriction of currency to specie, whether gold, silver or both. Fulton's activities as a radical publisher continued for several years after the world war,93 five different journals appearing under his sponsorship down to 1928.

p. 299.

Free Competition. An Outline of the Principles of Philosophical Anarchism. (Liberty Library No. 6). Columbus Junction, Iowa, 1896.
Modern Socialistic Tendencies (Liberty Library No. 4). Columbus Junction, Iowa, 1897.

Carl Watner, The Voluntaryist (1984)

From The Voluntaryist No. 9, September 1984. Reprinted in I Must Speak Out: The Best of The Voluntaryist 1982-1999'. 57.

[Editor's introduction: "The Voluntaryists seek to reclaim the anti-political heritage of libertarianism. As an example of that tradition I have selected a chapter on voluntaryist "methods' written by Francis Dashwood Tandy. Tandy (1867-?), a supporter of the individualist ideas of Benjamin Tucker, published the book Voluntary Socialism (from which this chapter is taken) in Denver during the spring of 1896. The book was described in advertisements in Liberty as "a complete and systematic outline of Anarchistic philosophy and economics, written in a clear, concise, and simple style."
Its purpose, in the words of the author's Preface, was to provide "a brief but lucid outline of ... Voluntaryism." Its title, although somewhat of a puzzler, is easy enough to explain. Throughout much of the nineteenth century, "socialism" meant the abolition of every type of economic privilege. According to Tandy, there are two types of socialists: the State Socialist, who hoped to use the government to abolish the surplus value created by legislation (a method which he thought inherently contradictory) and the "voluntary Socialists or Anarchists," who maintained that the exercise of free competition, in such legally restricted areas as banking and tariffs (to name just two), was the only way to eradicate social evils.
Tandy has a clear grasp of the voluntaryist insight and the voluntary principle. He rejected revolutionary violence as impractical and unnecessary and saw electoral politics as just another form of institutionalized coercion. In reviewing his comments, I have changed his expression "passive" resistance to the more modern "non-violent resistance." I am proud to offer this condensed version of Chapter XIII (pp. 186-201), which I suspect represents the only time it has reappeared in nearly 100 years. --Carl Watner]

Public Records

United States Census (1900)

United States Census. Year: 1900; Census Place: Montclair, Arapahoe, Colorado; Roll: 120; Page: 1A; Enumeration District: 148; FHL microfilm: 1240122.

Place of residence: Montclair, Arapahoe, Colorado.

Name of each person whose place of abode on June 1, 1900, was in this familyRelationColor or raceSexDate of Birth: MonthYearAge at last birthdayWhether single, married, widowed, or divorcedNumber of years marriedMother of how many childrenNumber of these children livingNativity: Place of birth of this PersonPlace of birth of FatherMotherCitizenship: Year of immigration to the United StatesNumber of years in the United StatesNaturalizationOccupationMonths not employedEducation: Attended school (in months)Can readCan writeCan speak EnglishOwned free or mortgagedFarm or houseNumber of farm schedule
Tandy, Francis D. Head WMJan186733M7 England England England 188713Na.Clerk Real Estate0 YesYesYesOMH
Ina M. Wife WFAug187425M733MichiganNew JerseyMichigan YesYesYes
Richard J Son WMNov1893 6S ColoradoEngland Michigan At School 9
John M Son WMJan1895 5S ColoradoEngland Michigan At School 9
Frances E.DaughterWFMar1896 4S ColoradoEngland Michigan

United States Census (1910)

United States Census. Year: 1910; Census Place: Orangetown, Rockland, New York; Roll: T624_953; Page: 13A; Enumeration District: 0105; Image: 31; FHL microfilm: 1374966.

Place of residence: Orangetown, Rockland, New York.

Name of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this familyRelationSexColor or RaceAge at last birthdayWhether single, married, widowed, or divorcedNumber of years of present marriageMother of how many children: Number bornNumber now livingNativity: Place of birth of this PersonPlace of birth of FatherMotherCitizenship: Year of immigration to the United StatesWhether naturalized or alienWhether able to speak English; or, if not, give language spokenOccupation: Trade or professionGeneral nature of IndustryWhether an employer, employee, or working on own accountIf an employee: Whether or out of work on April 15, 1910Number of weeks out of work during year 1909Education: Whether able to readWhether able to writeAttended school any time since September 1, 1909Ownership of Home: Owned or rentedOwned free or mortgagedFarm or houseNumber of farm scheduleWhether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or NavyWhether blind (both eyes)Whether deaf and dumb
Tandy, Francis Head MW43M17 England - Irish Ireland - Irish Ireland - Irish 1886Na.YesManagerInsurance Co.WNo0YesYes //H
Maud Wife FW35M1733Michigan New Jersey Michigan YesNone None YesYes
Richard Son MW16 Colorado England Michigan YesNone None YesYes
John Son MW15 Colorado England Michigan YesNone None YesYes
ElizabethDaughterFM14 Colorado England Michigan YesNone None YesYesYes


  1. United States Federal Census. Year: 1910; Census Place: Orangetown, Rockland, New York; Roll: T624_953; Page: 13A; Enumeration District: 0105; Image: 31; FHL microfilm: 1374966.
  2. Obituary, Los Angeles Tribune, June 30, 1913.
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