Fred Schulder

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Fred Schulder (1874-1961) was an individualist anarchist writer from Cleveland, active in the late 19th and early 20th century, influenced by the work of Benjamin Tucker and Henry George. He sometimes described himself as a "single-tax anarchist," reflecting the joint influence of Tucker and George on his views.


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Benjamin Tucker (1899, 1907), Liberty

From "On Picket Duty," in Liberty XIII.12, Whole No. 362 (July, 1899), p. 1.

Lack of means compelling "I" to abandon the use of deckel-edge paper, the deckel-edge typography, of which such paper was the deeply-hidden motif, has been abandoned with it. For once I say: Blessed be poverty! Unhappily "I" could afford luxuries just long enough to enable it to do damage. This innovator's forced retreat is simultaneous with its winning of a blind disciple. Mr. Fred Schulder, of Cleveland, having occasion to print an Anarchistic pamphlet, and desiring, I suppose, to be thoroughly up-to-date, has adopted Swartz's modification of my plan of composition. Only, not perceiving (and I don't wonder at it) the occult raison d'être of the left-hand ragged-edge, he has failed to use deckel-edge paper,—an omission which renders the imitation so unflattering to the original that Mr. Swartz, in reviewing the pamphlet, remembers to forget to acknowledge the compliment. Thus does the high priest, by enshrouding his cult in mystery, lead the poor neophyte astray.

From "On Picket Duty," in Liberty XVI.1, Whole No. 397 (April, 1907), p. 2.

I am fortunate in having secured the services of Mr. Fred Schulder, of Cleveland, Ohio, as canvasser for Liberty and my other publications. Friends of the movement in the places that he visits can be of signal help by giving him information regarding the propensities and peculiarities of their fellow-citizens. They can rely on Mr. Schulder's trustworthiness. I appeal to the readers of Liberty throughout the country to send to Mr. Schulder (in Liberty's care) the names and addresses of people in any part of the country (no sender need confine himself to names of his own townsmen) whom a man like Mr. Schulder would be likely to interest. The value of these addresses will be considerably enhanced, if the approximate age, the occupation, and the intellectual sympathies of the parties are also given. For some months to come Mr. Schulder's work will be confined almost exclusively to cities and towns of more than ten thousand inhabitants within two hundred miles of the Atlantic coast.

From "On Picket Duty," in Liberty XVI.3, Whole No. 399 (September, 1907), pp. 3-4.

Mr. Fred Schulder, of Cleveland, who became my travelling salesman last March, did very well in New York city during the spring months. His work during the summer has been a little less encouraging, particularly because it has been done in small towns, which are much more difficult to canvass profitably, and partly because so many people are away from home in the hot weather. Early in September, Mr. Schulder will go to Philadelphia for a stay of several weeks. He should find that city an excellent field, much Anarchistic seed having been sown there. I bespeak for him the hearty co-operation of all the Philadelphia friends of Liberty.

Emma Goldman (1911), Letter to Bolton Hall

Now, as a matter of fact, there is not an Anarchist in the whole world who propagates violence, except that all agree—even such ultra respectables as Mr. Tucker—that we have the right to resist oppression.
The term "Philosophic Anarchist," as Fred Schulder has justly said, is merely a cloak for a great many who hate to be considered fools, and yet haven't the courage to admit that they are opposed to present society. It is not used in any other country except America, and was adopted largely for the very reason that Schulder refers to. It is quite true that there are Anarchists, Individualists and Communists, but these terms only differentiate the particular economic arrangements of society under Anarchism. But to class them into philosophic and terrorist Anarchists is, to my mind, very absurd.
Emma Goldman, letter to Bolton Hall, February 13, 1911, Reprinted in Mother Earth, Vol. VI, No. 2 (April, 1911). 57.

Emma Goldman (1931), Living My Life

From Emma Goldman (1931), Living My Life, Vol. 2, Ch. 44. New York: Alfred A Knopf, Inc.

At my lecture in Cleveland [in December 1916] on "Family Limitation" Ben conceived the idea of calling for volunteers to distribute birth-control pamphlets. A number of people responded. At the end of the meeting Ben was arrested. A hundred persons, each carrying the forbidden pamphlet, followed him to the jail, but only Ben was held for trial. We immediately organized a Free Speech League, which combined with the local birth-control organization to fight the case.
Cleveland had for years been a free-speech stronghold, owing to the libertarian conditions established there by the single-tax mayor, the late Tom Johnson. Brave citizens of different political views had since zealously guarded those liberties. Among them I had many friends, but none more helpful than Mr. and Mrs. Carr, Fred Shoulder [sic], Adeleine Champney [sic], and our old philosopher Jacobs. They had always exerted themselves to make my public work successful and to enhance my leisure hours by charming fellowship. It was therefore a severe shock to see this exceptional city go back on its traditions. But the ready response to our call to organize a fight against the suppression held out the hope that the right of free expression would again prevail in Tom Johnson's home town.

James J. Martin (1970/2009), Men Against the State

From James J. Martin (1970/2009), Men Against the State: The Expositors of Individualist Anarchism in America, 1827-1908. Auburn, Ala.: Ludwig von Mises Institute. 258.

Others attempted the task assumed by Bailie in reconciling the many elements which went to make up individualist anarchism as it emerged from the combined influences of Spencerian and Stirnerite doctrines. One of these projected syntheses was the brief outline of Fred Schulder, The Relation of Anarchism to Organization. Another was Francis D. Tandy, an associate of Cohen in Denver, whose Modern Social Tendencies and Voluntary Socialism were anarchist works of considerable repute,87 showing influence of Tucker, Spencer and Thoreau. Both Tandy and Schulder were recipients of Tucker's approval in their activities along the program of educational propaganda for the anarchist cause.
87. Schulder, Relation of Anarchism to Organization, 2-4, 10-15; Tandy, Modern Social Tendencies, 1-2, 9. See the review of Tandy's Voluntary Socialism by Clarence Lee Swartz in I, II (May, 1899), 6-7.

Paul Avrich (1980), The Modern School Movement

For Tucker as for Henry George, monopoly was the principle bête noire, the source of injustice and exploitation; and Alexis [Constantine Ferm], who shared this opinion, sought to combine their anarchist and single-tax philosophies into a unified doctrine. "Many years ago," he wrote in 1963, "when Tucker was still running his 'Unique' book store on Sixth Avenue and had his printing press in the Parker Building on Fourth Avenue, and Fred Schulder was traveling around the country selling Tucker's [edition of] 'The Ego and His Own' and other books, Fred Schulder and I sat up until 2 o'clock one night discussing the problem and decided to call ourselves Single Tax Anarchists." We may accept this label as an accurate summation of Alexis's social philosophy, to which he adhered for the rest of his life. Nor was the combination unique; in the Ferrer movement alone it was shared by such figures as Bolton Hall, Konrad Bercovici, and Dr. Liber.
—Paul Avrich (1980/2006), The Modern School Movement: Anarchism and Education in the United States. Oakland, Cali.: AK Press. 287.

Paul Avrich (1995), Anarchist Voices

Paul Avrich (1995/2005), interview with Oriole Tucker Riché, in Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America. Oakland, Cali.: AK Press. 9.

Mother--Pearl Johnson--was the daughter of a New England couple, Horace Johnson and Florence Hull, one of four daughters of Moses Hull, a minister of advanced views who became a well-known spiritualist. Pearl went to the Sunrise Club in New York and knew Bea Schumm. It was George Schumm15 who suggested her to Father to work in his bookshop a few years before I was born. One of Mother's sisters was Dr. Bertha Johnson. Fred Schulder,16 who worked as a salesman for Liberty, was Aunty Bertha's boyfriend. His son with Adeline Champney, Horace Champney, was the Quaker who sailed a boat to Vietnam a few years ago to protest against the war.

Paul Avrich (1995/2005), notes on interview with Oriole Tucker Riché, in Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America. Oakland, Cali.: AK Press. 478.

16. Fred Schulder (1874-1961), a single-tax anarchist, was Tucker's chief associate in Cleveland, where he lived with his companion Adeline Champney, a contributor to Liberty and Mother Earth. As Tucker's sales representative, Schulder traveled about the country taking subscriptions for Liberty and selling books and pamphlets published by Tucker. He is the author of the pamphlet The Relation of Anarchism to Organization (1899).

Paul Avrich (1995/2005), notes on interview with Elmer B. Isaak, in Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America. Oakland, Cali.: AK Press. 484.

79. Henry George (1839-1897), American writer and founder of the single-tax movement, who advocated an annual tax on the rental value of land and the imposition of no other taxes. His book Progress and Poverty (1879) became the bible of the single-tax movement, selling millions of copies around the world and influencing such diverse figures as Leo Tolstoy, George Bernard Shaw, and Sun Yat-sen. His disciples in the United States included many anarchists, among them Bolton Hall, Fred Schulder, George S. Seldes, and Alexis C. Ferm.